Monday, January 20, 2020
Problem Statement Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã My task was to find 3 equations, that would give me an answer, if I had certain information. The first was to find one that if you knew that there were four pegs on the boundary, and none on the interior, you could get the area. The second was if you knew that there were 4 pegs on the boundary, and you knew how many were on the interior, you could get the area. And last, if you had the number on the interior, and the number on the boundary, you could get the area. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Process Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first two equations, were a preparation for the final, building up towards the complete idea. This helped, because I could complete the first two pretty quickly. For Freddie I drew a 3 column T-Table, with a drawing of the figure, the number of Pegs (in), and the Area (out). I looked for a pattern between the in and the out, and quickly found one that made sense, and I worked it into a formula. I got X/2-1=Y. Where X is IN (number of pegs) and Y is OUT (Area). This works in all shapes with no interior pegs, like Freddie described. I attached this T-Table. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For Sally I followed my luck of the 3 column T-Table, and drew another with the same guidelines. The figure, the interior pegs (in), and the area (out). After I filled in a few figures, and their properties, I noticed a pattern, and not long after, a formula, which worked for them. It was X+1=Y. This T-Table is also attached. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Now...the next was not so easy. Frashy's required a long thought process, an...
Sunday, January 12, 2020
CHAPTER 43 1) 1. C 7. B 2. B 8. A 3. A 9. B 4. B 10. C 5. C 11. B 6. A 12. B 2) Describe the process of synapsis The pairing of homologous chromosomes (23 tetrads become attached to spindle fibers & begin to align on the equator. 3) How does crossover introduce variability in the daughter cells? The homologues separate from one another, breaking & exchanging parts- where crossovers occur 4) Define homologous chromosomes Egg & sperm chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits (1 paternal, 1 maternal) 5) 1. Primitive stemspermatogonium 2.Haploidsecondary spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm 3. Provides nutrients to developing spermsustentacular cells 4. Products of meiosis IIspermatid 5. Product of spermiogenesissperm 6. Product of meiosis Ispermatocyte 6) Why are spermatids not considered functional gametes? They are non-motile and have too much excess baggage to function well in a reproductive capacity. 7) Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, mobile spermatozoa. Formation of haploid gametes by male sloughing off excess spermatid cytoplasm to form a functioning sperm 8) Draw a sperm, label: acrosome, head, mid piece and tail. Beside each label, note the composition, and function of each sperm structures. Acrosome ( composition & function) penetrating device containing digestive enzymes Head ( composition & function) genetic region, nucleus Mid piece ( composition & function) contains mitochondria which provide ATP Tail ( composition & function) contractile filaments (loco motor region) 9) The lifespan of a sperm is very short? What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you don't know its life span? No cytoplasm in which to store nutrients 10) The sequence of events leading to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development, by the time the child is born; all viable oogonia have been converted to Primary oocytes How does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to that of the male? Much smaller, and the total number is predetermined 11) Female gametes develop n structures called follicles. What is a follicle? A saclike structure containing follicle cells in one or more layers that enclose a developing gamete. How are primary and vesicular follicles anatomically different? Primary follicle=primary oocyte; a single layer of cuboidal/columnar follicle cells Secondary follicle=several layers of cuboidal/columnar cells collectively called the membranous granulose which secrete follicular fluid What is a corpus luteum? It is what's left of the follicle after a woman ovulates, glandular ovarian structure that produces progesterone. The ruptured vesicular follicle is converted to corpus leuteum. 12) What is the major hormone produced by the vesicular follicle? Estrogen What is the major hormone produced by the corpus luteum? Progesterone (and some estrogen) 13) 1. B 2. C 3. C 4. D 14) The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four _____________; the final product of oogenesis is one ________ and three ____________ Spermatids, ovum, polar bodies. What is the function of the unequal result of oogenesis in the female? To provide the ovum or functional gamete w/adequate nutritional reserves so that it can survive its journey to the uterus. What is the fate of the 3 tiny cells produced during oogenesis? Why? They will deteriorate; they lack sustaining cytoplasm w/nutrient reserves. 15) 1. FSH 2. LH 3. Estrogen and Progesterone 4. Estrogen 5. LH 6. LH 16) Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle? Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary hormone LH are very low 17) 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. A 18) What uterine tissue undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle? Endometrium 19) When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely? Explain why? Anytime but the three-day interval (days 14-16) around ovulation (28 day cycle assumed) 20) Assume that a woman could be an Ã¢â¬Å"on demandÃ¢â¬ ovulator like the rabbit, in which copulation stimulates the hypothalamic-anterior pituitary axis and causes LH release, and an oocyte was ovulated and fertilized on day 26 of her 28-day cycle. Why would a successful pregnancy be unlikely at this time? The uterine lining goes through a cycle of building up every cycle to accept an embryo. By the time day 26 comes along, the lining is getting ready to slough off during the next period. Most likely the lining of the uterus would not be able to support the implantation and development of the embryo at this time.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Friday, December 27, 2019
Como regla general, para sacar el pasaporte de EE.UU. para un menor de edad es necesaria la presencia y el consentimiento de ambos padres o, en su caso, del guardiÃ ¡n o tutor legal. Sin embargo, la ley reconoce importantes excepciones a esta regla general, ya que a veces es muy difÃ cil o imposible que ambos padres puedan acompaÃ ±ar al infante a solicitar el pasaporte. Por ejemplo, cuando no se hablan o, simplemente, no se puede ubicar a uno de ellos. Puntos clave: presencia de padres para solicitar pasaporte para menor en EE.UU. Regla general: es necesaria la presencia y consentimiento de ambos padresExcepciones: custodia no compartida, no es posible ubicar a uno de los padres, es imposible que se presente o uno de ellos se niega a dar su consentimiento para este trÃ ¡mite. Casos de In Loco Parentis (en el lugar de los padres).Costo pasaporte y/o tarjeta de pasaporte: 16 aÃ ±os o mÃ ¡s, 15 aÃ ±os o menos. Primera vez/renovar. Tarifa de tramitaciÃ ³n urgente y servicio de mensajerÃ a. Regla general sobre presencia de los padres para solicitar pasaporte de EE.UU. para los hijos La regla general es que se necesita el consentimiento de ambos padres para sacar el pasaporte americano para un niÃ ±o menor de edad. La consecuencia de dicha regla es que para solicitar el pasaporte de un niÃ ±o estadounidense ambos padres deben presentarse con el menor en la Oficina o Agencia de AceptaciÃ ³n de Solicitudes de Pasaporte, si se estÃ ¡ en Estados Unidos, o en una oficina consular si se estÃ ¡ en otro paÃ s. Excepciones a la regla de presencia conjunta del padre y de la madre Las normas permiten tres excepciones a esta regla general de obligatoriedad de presencia de ambos padres en el trÃ ¡mite de solicitud de pasaporte estadounidense para un hijo menor de edad. En primer lugar, no es requisito la presencia de padre y madre en la Oficina o Agencia de solicitud de pasaportes o en la oficina consular cuando se puede probar que uno de los progenitores goza en exclusiva de la custodia sobre el hijo. Los documentos aceptados son las siguientes: Certificado de Nacimiento (forma larga) o Reporte Consular de Nacimiento en el Extranjero del niÃ ±o en el que figure sÃ ³lo el nombre del padre o de la madre.Certificado de DefunciÃ ³n de uno de los padres.DeclaraciÃ ³n de una Corte estableciendo que uno de los padres es incompetente para asuntos legales.Certificado de adopciÃ ³n, cuando el menor es adoptado por sÃ ³lo un hombre o sÃ ³lo una mujer.Orden judicial en la que se concede la custodia al padre o a la madre. Sin embargo, en este Ã ºltimo caso, es posible que el documento judicial expresamente prohiba al progenitor que goza de la custodia en exclusiva del derecho a solicitar un pasaporte para el menor. Si esa es la situaciÃ ³n, no podrÃ ¡ pedir sin el otro progenitor el pasaporte para el niÃ ±o. En segundo lugar, no es obligatoria la presencia de ambos padres cuando el papÃ ¡ y la mamÃ ¡ tienen la custodia conjunta sobre el menor pero es imposible que uno de ellos acompaÃ ±e al niÃ ±o a realizar la tramitaciÃ ³n de pasaporte. Pero para ello es necesario que el progenitor que no lo acompaÃ ±e complete el formulario DS-3053. Llenar todos los apartados desde el 1 al 4a, dejando en blanco los apartados 4b y 5. AdemÃ ¡s, hay que obtener la firma de un notario y presentarlo en la oficina de solicitud de pasaporte o en el consulado. Llevar tambiÃ ©n una fotocopia legible de un I.D. oficial del padre ausente. En tercer lugar, incluso es posible que ninguno de los papÃ ¡s acompaÃ ±e al infante. En este caso los padres deben hacer una declaraciÃ ³n jurada ante un notario otorgando a favor de otra persona, como por ejemplo, la abuelita o un tÃ o, el poder para acompaÃ ±ar al niÃ ±o y representar a los padres para ese asunto concreto. Esto es lo que se conoce como In Loco Parentis (en el lugar de los padres). Ã ¿QuÃ © pasa cuando ambos padres tienen la custodia pero uno se niega a dar el consentimiento o no se puede localizar? Es frecuente que en casos de separaciÃ ³n o divorcio no amistosos, uno de los padres se niegue a dar el consentimiento para que los hijos comunes soliciten el pasaporte. Siempre que ambos padres tengan la custodia, el padre o madre que desee que sus hijos tengan pasaporte puede explicar este problema en el apartado 5 del formulario DS-3053. Su explicaciÃ ³n puede ser aceptada o no. Como recurso final siempre se puede pedir una orden judicial para conseguir la autorizaciÃ ³n del otro progenitor. Pero la Corte solo dictaminarÃ ¡ que el menor puede aplicar por el pasaporte si el viaje al extranjero que se pretende realizar es en interÃ ©s del menor y no hay riesgo de que se retenga al menor en el extranjero. Se trata de evitar que uno de los padres viaje con los hijos a otro paÃ s y no regresen a Estados Unidos. Si esto ocurriera, serÃ a un delito de secuestro internacional de niÃ ±os. TambiÃ ©n puede suceder que uno de los padres no pueda ubicar al otro progenitor para pedir el consentimiento. En este caso la soluciÃ ³n tambiÃ ©n es rellenar el formulario DS-3053, dejando en blanco el apartado 4a y el 4b y extendiÃ ©ndose en el apartado 5 lo mÃ ¡s que se pueda explicando las gestiones realizadas para localizar otro progenitor. Presencia del menor Cuando se solicita un pasaporte para un niÃ ±o americano hay que seguir reglas muy estrictas sobre su presencia en la oficina en la que se realiza el trÃ ¡mite, tanto para la renovaciÃ ³n como para solicitar por primera vez. Como regla general, el niÃ ±o debe estar presente para este trÃ ¡mite, aunque sea un bebÃ ©. Costo y formularios para solicitar pasaporte o tarjeta de pasaporte de EE.UU. para un menor Con el pasaporte estadounidense los ciudadanos estadounidenses pueden salir de e ingresar a EE.UU. por cualquiera de sus pasos migratorios. Por el contrario, con la tarjeta de pasaporte solo es posible utilizar controles migratorios terrestres o marÃ timos hacia/desde MÃ ©xico, Bermudas, CanadÃ ¡ y Caribe. Cada persona puede elegir un documento u otro o ambos, segÃ ºn sus necesidades. SegÃ ºn el Departamento de Estado, el costo de solicitar por primera vez o renovar el pasaporte o la tarjeta de pasaporte de un menor son los siguientes: Pasaporte estadounidense por primera vez: 16 aÃ ±os o mÃ ¡s: $110 costo de aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 tarifa de ejecuciÃ ³n15 aÃ ±os o menos: $80 costo de aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 tarifa de ejecuciÃ ³n Tarjeta de pasaporte: 16 aÃ ±os o mÃ ¡s: $30 costo de aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 costo de ejecuciÃ ³n15 aÃ ±os o menos: $15 costo de aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 tarifa de ejecuciÃ ³n Si se desea solicitar al mismo tiempo el pasaporte y la tarjeta de pasaporte se deben pagar el costo de aplicaciÃ ³n de ambos documentos pero solo un coste de aplicaciÃ ³n. AsÃ , los niÃ ±os entre 16 y 18 aÃ ±os pagan $140 por ambos documentos en concepto de aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 por ejecuciÃ ³n. Es decir, un total de $175. En el caso de niÃ ±os de 15 aÃ ±os o menos, si se solicitan ambos documentos tendrÃ an que pagar un total de $95 por aplicaciÃ ³n mÃ ¡s $35 en concepto de ejecuciÃ ³n. La cuota de aplicaciÃ ³n se paga al Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos mientras que la de ejecuciÃ ³n, tambiÃ ©n conocida como de aceptaciÃ ³n, se paga a la Oficina de AceptaciÃ ³n que tramita la gestiÃ ³n. Costo de renovaciÃ ³n: 16 aÃ ±os o mÃ ¡s: $110 por pasaporte y $30 por tarjeta de pasaporte. 15 aÃ ±os o menos: mismas tarifas que cuando se aplica por primera vez Costos extra en la solicitud del pasaporte: Tarifa por tramitaciÃ ³n urgente: $60Tarifa por entrega en por mensajerÃ a urgente: $16,48 Este Ã ºltimo servicio solo es posible dentro de Estados Unidos. No estÃ ¡ disponible para tarjetas de pasaporte. Formularios para solicitar el pasaporte Menores de 15 aÃ ±os o menos: DS-11, para solicitar por primera vez y renovar16 aÃ ±os o mÃ ¡s: DS-11 para solicitar por primera vez, DS-82 para renovar QuÃ © hacer cuando el pasaporte no llega Puede suceder que la demora entre dentro de los plazos normales, ya que hay gran diferencia si se sigue el procedimiento ordinario o si se paga para una tramitaciÃ ³n urgente. Pero tambiÃ ©n puede suceder que se extravÃ e por correo. En este caso, es necesario reportar esta incidencia para que las autoridades vuelvan a emitir otro sin coste alguno. DocumentaciÃ ³n para el cruce de fronteras Una vez que se tiene el pasaporte, Ã ©ste es el mejor documento para que un ciudadano americano cruce fronteras, no sÃ ³lo las de otros paÃ ses, sino tambiÃ ©n para salir y regresar a los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, en algunos casos muy limitados el pasaporte no es necesario y se admiten otras alternativas para ingresar a Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la mejor opciÃ ³n siempre es el pasaporte o, en su caso, la tarjeta de pasaporte. TambiÃ ©n es importante tener en cuenta quÃ © documentaciÃ ³n se puede pedir cuando un infante viaja internacionalmente sin estar acompaÃ ±ado por sus dos padres. Finalmente, antes de viajar a otro paÃ s, verificar la fecha de expiraciÃ ³n del pasaporte, ya que los de los niÃ ±os expiran a los cinco aÃ ±os si se emitieron antes de cumplir 16 aÃ ±os de edad. Si ya habÃ an cumplido dicho edad, los pasaportes son vÃ ¡lidos por 10 aÃ ±os. Ã AdemÃ ¡s, verificarÃ si se necesita visa para el paÃ s al que se va a viajar. Este artÃ culo es sÃ ³lo informativo. No es consejo legal para ningÃ ºn caso concreto.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
What do failing grades, frequent memory lapses, fights, brutal hangovers and unplanned sexual activity all have in common? They are all frequent results of binge drinking by college students. On a typical Friday or Saturday night you can find the average college student out drinking and having fun. Normally partying with friends at a party, bar, or club; most of these college students are underage consuming excessive amounts of alcohol, or as its better known, Ã¢â¬Å"binge drinking.Ã¢â¬ The term binge drinking is defined as the consumption of five or more drinks in a row by men and four or more drinks in a row by women, at least once in a two week period. Ã¢â¬Å"OneÃ¢â¬ drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, or one shot of liquor. AlcoholÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Binge drinking varies greatly due to college campus locations. According to the 2000 CAS report, campuses that are located in the Northeast and Midwest of the United States have higher rates of bi nge drinking. Gender also takes a major role of campus binge drinking. Men are more likely to binge drink than women. The population of college fraternity members and athletes are more likely to binge than any other groups or clubs on campuses. A study done by the Core Institute in 1999 showed that, white students are 50.2% more likely to binge drink, than students of other ethnicities; compared to 34.4% of Hispanics, 33.6% of Native American Indian, 26.2% of Asians, and 21.7% of Black/African Americans. The primary reason for this is consistent with the differential association theory, which is the longer the time period of contact that people have in deviant settings, the greater the probability that they, too, will become deviant. Ã¢â¬Å"From the moment freshmen set foot on campus, they are steeped in a culture that encourages them to drink, and drink heavily. At many schools, social life is still synonymous with alcohol-lubricated gatheringsÃ¢â¬ (Cohen). Binge drinking is a huge aspect of the culture of college life; many college students binge drink to become socially accepted in a particular group. Binge drinking is not onlyShow MoreRelatedTeenage Binge Drinking and its Consequences1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeenage drinking is among the issues that have received respectable attention from researchers owing to its increase. In the United States as well as other countries, underage drinking has become a prevalent issue with often far-reaching consequences. Teenagers, who engage in binge drinking, are likely to be exposed to other dangers, such as psychological issues, drinking-related accidents, and violent crimes. 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[Minimum Age Limits Worldwide. International Center for Alcohol Policies. RetrievedÃ 2009-09-20.] In Australian society, alcohol has many roles. Many Australians take alcohol mostly for relaxation, enjoyment and for social reasons, and generally they consume alcohol at levels that cause few adverse effects. However, a significant proportion of Australians take alcohol at levels that cause adverse effects. In manyRead MoreThe Effects Of Binge Drinking On College Students849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessome negative. With increased peer pressure and opportunity, some are introduced to a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s worst nightmare that being the cause and effects of binge drinking. I plan to delve into the ideas and perspectives of both college students, and researchers to excavate what it is that engulfs college students to consume large amounts of alcohol at a given time, and how the effects translate cordially. With high contrast of various academic articles/scholarly sources, we can see exclusive patterns and importanceRead MoreUnderage Drinking Is Part Of The Culture Of College1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescollege one thing that I did discover is that underage drinking is part of the culture in college, also the friends that I had in high school who are 21 now I have discovered they drink some of the least amount now. Which has begun to make me wonder why people who are 21 drink less than people who are underage. I believe that when people are 21 they now do not have to worry about the next time they can get alcohol. Congress should lower the drinking age from 21 to 18 because at age 18 when they are
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
A modified version of a Stroop experiment using colour-associated and colour neutral words free essay sample
Abstract: This experiment investigated the Stroop effect comparing response times between naming colour ink printed in colour-associated words and colour neutral words. Previous research of two-process theories which support Stroops studies [cited in Edgar:2007] found that automatic processes can interfere with controlled processes. To test this interference further, colour-associated words were employed. Results of this experiment show a statistically significant difference in condition response times, with naming the colour ink printed in colour-associated words taking longer than those in colour neutral words, providing further support for the stroop effect and two-process theories. Introduction: The environment produces a wealth of sensory information our senses can potentially pick up and process and yet only some of it is processed, the rest ignored. This cognitive selection process is known as attention. With attentional processes seemingly needed, this would indicate the brain has limited resources to process all sensory information. A study of Change blindness by Simons and Levin [cited in Edgar:2007] indicates that it is generalities and not specifics which are processed. This raises questions as to why this would be the case. Kahneman [cited in Edgar:2007] proposed a theory that a part of the brain, a limited-capacity central processor, has the job of evaluating bottom-up information and combining this with top-down information. Because it has limited capacity, much of the sensory information will not be processed. However, this explanation of limited resources does not account for the brains ability to do more than one task at a time, for example, listening to music while driving a car. This question was investigated using dual-task studies. Posner and Boies [cited in Edgar:2007] dual-task study, a visual and auditory task performed simultaneously, had results indicating when visual and auditory stimuli presented together, response times were slower than when singularly, supporting Kahnemans theory. However, Mcleods [cited in Edgar:2007] modified study, altered the auditory response from a button press to saying bip, found no slowing of response times. The implication being that there is no one single processor, but as Navon and Gopher, 1979; Wickens, 1992 [cited in Edgar:2007] suggest, there are multiple-resource theories of attention. However, theory consensus is the brain can cope with finite sensory information, thus filtering out incoming information. Posner [cited in Edgar:2007] posited this filtering as an attentional spotlight which gives processing priority to only what is within the visual field. Eriksen and Murphy [cited in Edgar:2007] expanded this, suggesting a zoom lens which the brain has control over, known as selective attention. There is also as Treisman [cited in Edgar:2007] discovered, situational meaning which can focus attention, for example, hearing ones name from a conversation across a room at a party. Attentional spotlight focuses can also be involuntary or automatic, for example, a sudden loud noise leading attention away from where it was, referred as stimulus-induced shifts of attention. This process is supported by studies from Schneider and Shiffrin [cited in Edgar:2007] suggesting an automatic process, which uses no processing resources. Given limited resources, this process frees attention for other things. These notions initiated two-process theories, suggesting controlled and automatic processes working simultaneously and efficiently, with stability circumstance dependent. However, automatic processes have downsides, as an occurrence known as the Stroop effect shows. One example of a Stroop experiment, is a list of colour printed words, where one condition contains colour words printed in different colours, the stroop condition, and the other condition has colour neutral words printed in the same colours. Participants are required to say the colour each word is printed in as quickly as possible. The Stroop condition has significant response interference naming the colour over the neutral word condition. This raises questions. Reading is the automatic process, naming the colour is the controlled, but on that basis both conditions are the same. Perhaps there is interference from colour words and the colour of the ink sharing similar meanings. This experiment will explore this interference further by modifying the Stroop condition, using colour-associated words instead of colour words to discover whether this produces a similar response result between Stroop and neutral conditions. The research hypothesis was that saying the colour ink printed in colour-associated words condition would take longer than in the colour neutral condition. The null hypothesis was that it would not take longer to say the colour in colour-associated words. Method: Design Ã¢â¬â A within-participants design was used. The independent variable was naming the colour of the ink words are printed in, which incorporated two conditions, in both of which the participants had to speak aloud the colour of the ink from printed words. In condition one, the words were colour-associated and in condition two, the words were colour-neutral. The dependent variable was the time it took for the participant to complete each condition and was measured by the researcher with a stop watch to the nearest second. To control any confounding variables, participants took part individually and all read the exact same instructions (Appendix1). The same number of words and their length were the same in both conditions. The same colour shades and the order they were used, as well as how many times each word was presented, to negate practice effects, was equal in both conditions. The order of the conditions was alternated consecutively, participant one starting with condition one and then participant two starting with condition two and so on, again to negate any practice effects. Participants Twenty participants, all English speaking and non colour-blind, eight of whom were men and twelve women, either fellow students at The Open University or friends and family, were asked to take part, all agreeing to volunteer. Their ages ranged from 18 to 69 years. Materials To record the participants response times, for completing each condition, accurate to the nearest second, a stop watch was used. The stimuli for both conditions contained a list of six words, with condition twos being matched in length and the first letter . Condition one contained six colour-associated words and condition two contained six colour neutral words. Each word in both conditions was displayed five times in a matched randomised order within two columns on A4 paper. All words were printed in one of six colours, which were matched randomised. An example of the both conditions stimuli is provided in Appendix 2. Consent forms were completed by each participant (Appendix 3) and each were given the same instructions, which included an example, (Appendix 1). A data sheet was used to record participants age, sex and response times (Appendix 4). SPSS software was used to acquire the statistical results. Procedure Participants were approached individually and asked whether they would volunteer to take part in a solo cognitive psychology experiment which should last for about five minutes. The researcher then briefed the participant about the research topic being studied and why this particular experiment, answering any questions posed and mentioning there would a debrief upon completing the experiment. Participants agreeing to take part, were informed their data would be anonymous and that they could withdraw at anytime. Upon this they signed a consent form. Then the participants age and sex were entered onto the data sheet, for demographic purposes only. The participant was then told they would be presented with a sheet of paper for each condition, with two columns of words and to say aloud, as quickly as they could, the colour of the ink each word was printed in, beginning with the top of the left hand column. An example was shown to illustrate the experiment and ensure the participant fully understood what was required for them to do. For the verbatim instructions in full, please see (Appendix 1). Once the participant was content, the sheet labelled Condition 1 was placed face down in front of the participant. Upon the participant being told to turn the sheet over and begin, the researcher started the stop watch. As soon the participant completed Condition 1, the stop watch was stopped and the time to the nearest second was recorded on the data sheet. The process was repeated exactly the same way for Condition 2. Once both conditions had been completed, the researcher thanked the participant for their time and then debriefed them as to the nature and objective of the experiment and answered any questions the participant may have had. Finally the participant was informed once again that their data would be used anonymously and that if they had any concerns at a later date, their data could be withdrawn. Results: The research hypothesis was that saying the colour ink printed in colour-associated words condition would take longer than in the colour neutral condition. Each condition was measured for the time taken to complete saying the colour of ink printed in each word, to the nearest second. Table 1 Ã¢â¬â Mean and standard deviation for response time in seconds Mean Std. deviation Condition 1 (colour-associated words) 25. 1 6. 46 Condition 2 (colour neutral words) 21. 55 5. 4 As Table 1 shows, there is a significant difference in the mean response times for both conditions, with the mean response time for the colour-associated words condition being 3. 55 seconds longer than the colour neutral condition. A paired samples t-test was carried out and the analysis shows a statistically significant difference between the conditions, however, effect size is small, (t (19) = 4. 173; p = 0. 0005; d = 0. 254). With this result the null hypothesis was rejected. Discussion: The results of this experiment show that, on average, participants took longer naming the colour, a list of colour-associated words were printed in, than when naming the colour of a list of colour neutral words. Suggesting the controlled process of naming the colour ink of colour-associated words, had interference from two automatic attentional processes, that of reading and association of colour. These results echo Stroops experiment and findings [cited in Edgar:2007] with an automatic process interfering with a controlled process, supporting Schneider and Shiffrin [cited in Edgar:2007] and two-process theories, where the balance between controlled and automatic processes is situational dependent. This situational balance leads to the modification of this experiment, using colour-associated words instead of colour words. The participant has the automatic process of reading, interfering with the controlled process of naming the colour of the ink, but then the meaning of the word, possibly, shifts attention, effecting participant response times, similarly to Treisman [cited in Edgar:2007] findings. A possible confounding variable which could have had an affect on participants response times is if any participants had had prior knowledge of the Stroop effect, thus employing a strategy to control the automatic response as Gopher [cited in Edgar:2007] suggests that attentional control, like any skill, can be learnt and altered for a situation and or practice effects if having taken part in a prior Stroop experiment. This may be why some of the participants had almost matched response times to both conditions, see Appendix 4. A solution to this would be to ask the participant whether they have taken part in a previous experiment and exclude them if they have. Another possible confounding variable is time of day for conducting the experiment, so standardising this would be a solution. Further studies could look at possible ways of strengthening the experiment results by increasing the number of words in the list. Another would be to add time penalties or ask the participant to correct themselves if they make a mistake when naming the colour inks. It may be of interest to find out if age has any effect on response times. This could be done by comparing age groups. A further interesting aspect would be to conduct an experiment in which colour-associated word list response times are compared against colour word list response times, to find out whether colour-associated words have a stronger effect on participant response times than colour words. To conclude, the results of this experiment support both the Stroop effect and that of two-process theories of controlled and automatic processes working simultaneously, but are situational dependent. Further research could investigate whether there is a difference in response times between colour-associated words and colour words. Word count: 1986 References: Edgar, G. (2007) Evolutionary Psychology. In D. Miell, A. Phoenix, K. Thomas (Eds. ), Mapping Psychology (2nd ed. , pp. 43-95). Milton Keynes: The Open University. The Course Team, (2007) Introduction to research methods. In The Research Team, Exploring Psychological Research Methods (pp. 1-42). Milton Keynes: The Open University. Appendices: Appendix 1: Instructions Appendix 2: Word lists with colour-associated and colour neutral words Appendix 3: Consent form Appendix 4: Data sheet with response times Appendix 5: SPSS print-out of the t-test Appendix 1: Instructions In a moment I will place a sheet of A4 paper in front of you that contains two columns of words. You will notice that the words are written in six different colours of ink Ã¢â¬â red, blue, green, yellow, orange and purple. What I would like you to do is to say out loud the colour of the ink each word is written in. Start with the word at the top of the left column and work downwards. When you have finished all the words in the left column, start on the right column. Remember, I do not want you to read the word itself out to me, instead I want you to state what colour of ink it has been written in. You should work through the list as quickly as you can. To help you, here are two examples: CHAIR For the item above you would respond blue. HOUSE For the item above you would respond red. Do you understand what you are required to do? (if yes, then proceed to task. If no, go through the examples again. ) Appendix 2: Word lists with colour-associated and colour neutral words Condition 1 SKY PLUM PLUM BLOOD LEMON LEMON GRASS GRASS CARROT BLOOD BLOOD SKY PLUM CARROT CARROT LEMON SKY PLUM GRASS GRASS BLOOD CARROT LEMON SKY CARROT BLOOD GRASS LEMON SKY PLUM Condition 2 STY PLAN PLAN BLAME LEDGE LEDGE GRADE GRADE CAREER BLAME BLAME STY PLAN CAREER CAREER LEDGE STY PLAN GRADE GRADE BLAME CAREER LEDGE STY CAREER BLAME GRADE LEDGE STY PLAN Appendix 3: Consent form Consent to participate I have been asked to participate in an experiment that investigates one aspect of cognitive psychology and give my free consent by signing this form. I have been informed about the research and why it is taking place. I understand that my participation in this research is voluntary. I understand that I can withdraw from the research at any time. I understand that my data will be anonymous. I understand that I will be provided with a debrief after taking part in the experiment. Signature _______________________________ Date ____________________________________ Appendix 4: Data sheet with response times Participant number Age (years) Sex (male/female) Condition 1 (colour-associated words) time (seconds) Condition 2 (neutral words) time (seconds) 1 48 male 16 14 2 43 male 31 26 3 38 female 24 18 4 31 male 14 14 5 18 female 19 15 6 47 female 30 23 7 39 male 20 14 8 22 male 22 24 9 37 female 30 19 10 42 female 18 22 11 55 female 22 23 12 68 male 39 35 13 20 female 29 20 14 69 male 31 25 15 39 female 31 28 16 42 female 30 27 17 36 female 20 17 18 19 male 25 22 19 25 female 21 22 20 38 female 30 23 Appendix 5: SPSS print-out of the t-test Paired Samples Test Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Pair 1 colour-associated words neutral words 3. 550 3. 804 .851 1. 770 5. 330 4. 173 19 .001
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
John Renald Dr. Waszak History 241 18 October 2018 Fall of Roman same effects on U.S Many people today always like comparing to the past. In this instance people are comparing the decline of the Roman Empire to the United States current state. In this case how the Roman Empire had function is very similar to today's society. People usually focus on the downfalls so what was going around in recent years was that there was a comparison on the forces of work that created the downfall of Rome is also happening on the United States. The cycle like repeats it self. I feel like what happen in the Great Depression is a great example of how a structure had failed and the United States began to fall as a nation. Not only that but several incidents which the United States were in trouble and i feel like all of those conflicts will begin to pile up and will end really bad. I find that the idea of what happen to a fallen Roman Empire to be a great comparison to what is happening now. The United States is not doing so well financially for example and that can be a major disadvantage to bettering our country. So with our current president in office it is believed that a war will be started. There is no need for a war to be stirred up because that is why the United Nations was built for. This current president has this influence that a war should be started to fix current problems. First of creating a war is not the right way to help this country. The amount of money that is going to be used for the war is going to be horrendous. People can make the argument that it will provide many jobs but that does not mean that a Draft may not come.Warfare and a good plan is needed to effectively win a war. The Roman Empire is just like America for example in this Article by Eugene Volokh he explains how Caesar had its faults, "If we know something about the fall of the Roman Republic, we know vaguely about Julius Caesar, about how he was a popular general who used his support within the military to effect a coup. The coup then led to a civil war in which the strongman who prevailed, Augustus, thought he would do very well with the powers Caesar had claimed for himself. If we know a little more, we know that Caesar was not just a successful general, but a canny politician, who used his political victories not just to command the personal allegiance of the legions, but to build a populist political power base at home. We might also be faintly aware that by the time Caesar could attempt his coup, the Roman Republic was already exhausted, with a complacent elite fattened by centuries of military victory and the attendant spoils."(Volokh). So in this case you can make the comparison on Juli us Caesar and Donald Trump on how they want to face things. Donald Trump views are not the best because of what his prime focus was warfare. That is one form of decline when you see war as an option. This current era is filled with advanced technology so you can see a major difference on how things worked in Rome back then. The belief that has been going around on how the United States is starting to fall is very alarming to various people for example an a man named Alfred W. Mccoy mentioned in his article, " Future historians are likely to identify the Bush administration's rash invasion of Iraq in that year as the start of America's downfall. However, instead of the bloodshed that marked the end of so many past empires, with cities burning and civilians slaughtered, this twenty-first century imperial collapse could come relatively quietly through the invisible tendrils of economic collapse or cyberwarfare. (McCoy). So it has been said that the downfall of America has already begun by previous faults of the former president. This decline has been affecting us for years we just do not realize that these mistakes keeps one adding up. No one knows what